Explicit Hate

Symbols, terms, phrases, and referenced themes whose appearance is unambiguously linked to the promotion of hateful views. Outside of education and commemoration, their use is almost exclusively limited to the promotion of hate.

109 Countries

Also appears as: 110 Countries

“109 countries” is reference to an antisemitic myth that Jews have historically been expelled from 109 countries. The myth is persistent in conspiratorial antisemitic movements, and the idea that malicious Jewish conduct has led to widespread rejection is used to promote a white nationalist narrative that Jewish exile or genocide are necessary.

The phrase is sometimes censored on social media for hate speech and disinformation, however, references to the concept that use coded language, such as referencing “the 110th country” in future-tense can be more difficult to moderate.

Long-necked drooling Wojak: "wow so you're antisemitic for no reason?" A wall of Yes Chads facing her, representing crusaders, Priests, and a soldier, respond, "No, we have 109 reasons why." 109 is an antisemitic dogwhistle that refers to a conspiracy that Jews have been exiled from 109 countries.


Number codes like 13/50 are used by white supremacists to perpetuate a racist myth that black people are inherently prone to crime or violence. 13/50 is a code for the false claim that Black Americans commit 50% of violence crime despite making up 13% of the population. The percentages and the slogan often appear in similar numbers like 14% and 51%, respectively. Because they are coded, they can appear in memes that do not immediately appear to be hateful to those unfamiliar with them.

A flag with 50 in a blue square in the top-left corner and 13 in red on the right side.

6 Gorillion

‘Six Gorillion’ is mocking reference to the six million Jews killed by Nazi Germany in the Holocaust. The term exists to emphasize an antisemitic narrative that the number six million was fabricated, and that Jews use that figure as a rhetorical shield and justification for alleged machinations. It is used in antisemitic memes to deny, distort, or mock the Holocaust and the memorial culture that surrounds it.

A Star of David over the One Ring from a still of Lord of the Rings. It is surrounded by 'Muh greatest ally', 'multiculturalism', 'race mixing', 'six gorillions', 'communism', 'Palestine never existed', 'Homosexual marriage', 'open borders' and 'Jews are always the victim'.

6 Million?

"6 Million?" is a meme that calls into question the number of Jews killed during the Holocaust. Some Holocaust deniers and distorters will concede that Jews were killed by the Nazi regime and their collaborators, but will attempt to use sophistry and disinformation to undermine widely documented and accepted historical facts.

A picture of Pawn Star's Rick Harrison, with text above that reads '6 million? Best I can do is 200 ad I'm taking a huge risk with that number...'

Black Sun

Also appears as: Sonnenrad

The Black Sun, or Sonnenrad, is an original symbol based on ancient sunwheel designs. The symbol was installed as a floor mosaic by SS (Schutzstaffel) in Wewelsburg Castle under the direction of SS head Heinrich Himmler. Today the Black Sun is often used in place of the Swastika as a symbol of national socialism. It also represents the elements of mysticism, occultism, and Satanism that can be found within some neo-Nazi movements. Because the Black Sun is not as well known as the Swastika, it is occasionally missed and broadcast by journalists and organizations, notably during the Russo-Ukrainian war.

Photograph. A women with blond and pink hair in a braid gives a Nazi salute to a black flag with a white 'Black Sun' on it. On the back of her shirt is the Fourteen Words in a blackletter typeface.

Brenton Tarrant

On 15 March 2019 white supremacist Brenton Harrison Tarrant killed 51 Muslim people in a shooting spree in Christchurch, New Zealand. Tarrant, who was heavily influenced by online far-right media, covered his equipment in references to internet memes and neo-Nazi symbols and videotaped his killing spree on a mounted camera for online distribution. Though mainstream social media platforms heavily moderated the video's spread, it was seen widely in extreme spaces.

Tarrant is idolized and deified in white supremacist accelerationist spaces, where adherents look to his actions for inspiration. His likeness, his manifesto, and memes incorporating footage from his video are used to incite hate-based violence, especially violence towards Muslims.

Brenton Tarrant depicted as a Christian Saint. He is holding his manifesto and the gun he used to committ his killing spree. A halo is formed behind his head.

Confederate Flag

The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War’s battle flag became a widely-used symbol of the slaveholding South after their defeat, and the pseudohistorical "Lost Cause" mythos that followed. The flag was often used to express racial animus during moments of widespread civil rights and labour activism, and is often associated with a variety of racist and far-right views. The flag, which is sometimes used as a symbol of rural identity, has a history of being flown in Canada, and appeared alongside other extreme symbols at the 2022 Freedom Convoy in Ottawa.

A black flag with a large X covering the span of its width and height. The X has 13 stars on it. Usually, the flag is red with a blue X.

Day of the Rope

Day of the Rope is a call for violence taken from the 1978 white supremacist novel The Turner Diaries written by American Neo-Nazi William Luther Pierce, which depicts a fictional overthrow of the United States government and ensuing race war. Pierce’s book is influential among white supremacists including Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, who was found with pages from the novel after his attack. In the book the Day of The Rope refers to a scene in the book where “race traitors” and enemies are executed en masse. Subsequent works by white supremacists have referenced Day of the Rope. There are numerous explicit and implicit Day of the Rope memes, which is sometimes referenced through noose-related imagery.

Meme titled 'Day of the Rope is coming', which shows a man in a totenkopf hat and wearing a skullmask standing next to a noose. Text reads 'And if I can accelerate that shit I'm going to. Because it needs to happen and I want to ee it in my lifetime. I do not wish to leave this to our children. Our children should not deal with this shit.'

Fourteen Words

“We must secure the existence of our people and a future for White children.”

The slogan commonly known as the “Fourteen Words” was penned by ex-Klansman, The Order member, and neo-Nazi David Lane during his time in prison. At the time, Lane was serving a 190 year prison sentence that included 150 years for his role in the murder of Jewish anti-Nazi radio host Alan Berg.

The Fourteen Words is recited as a call for white nationalists to become more involved in attempts to create or maintain a white ethnostate, including through violent actions. It is recited in memes and in online forums to signal loyalty to white supremacist ideologies and to incite direct action in the name of white nationalism.

Photograph of a young boy with his arm outstretched as if to give a roman salute. Pit vipers and a skull mask are Photoshopped on to him. Above are the Fourteen Words.

Great Replacement

The Great Replacement is a theory that asserts that white or “Aryan” people are being eliminated through a variety of mechanisms, including non-white immigration and feminism. White genocide conspiracy theories have a long history in far-right circles and remains prominent today in white nationalist, white supremacist, and conspiracy theory movements. The Anti-Defamation League has accused several high-profile politicians and media personalities of invoking the Great Replacement, including Tucker Carlson, who they relayed “explicitly promoted the ‘great replacement’ theory”. Coined in 2011 by French white nationalist and conspiracy theorist Renaud Camus, the Great Replacement was based on a variety of pre-existing racist theories and ideas. Proponents allege that the end goal of the Great Replacement is to “weaken” or ultimately destroy white families over several generations as they increasingly start interracial families. The premise of the Great Replacement relies on the concept of white people being of a single race and that ancestry from non-white ethnicities can exclude an individual from being white. Jews are often considered to be the perpetrators of the Great Replacement, but conspiracy theories adjacent to the Great Replacement sometimes blame other groups, including secretive world governments.

A picture showing a tall man with a large hooked nose, pushing a white woman and a Black man together, saying 'Why do you hesitate my dear? After years of watching our product, havent we instilled enough white guilt to make you leap at this opportunity to make things right?'. Below, text reads 'From major release movies to the so-called 'talk shows' on TV, the media Jews are pushing race mixing like never before. Keep your children sane from this insidious Hollywood mind pollution! Your race and nation are at stake!'.

Happy Merchant

Also appears as: Le Happy Merchant, Jew Face

Happy Merchant is an antisemitic meme depicting a stereotypical representation of a Jewish character with a large hooked nose, kippah, beard, and clasped hands. Happy Merchant is one of the most popular antisemitic symbols found online, and is often used to invoke antisemitic conspiracy theories. It’s appearance is heavily inspired by historical antisemitic caricatures, notably those produced within Nazi Germany, and was pulled from a comic produced by an infamous white supremacist cartoonist who worked under the pseudonym “A. Wyatt Mann.”

Happy Merchant (a crude caricature of a smiling Jewish man with his hands clasped) and the caption "IT'S WORKING" below it.

Nathan Phillips Square Blackface Guy

On 6 June 2020 an individual wore blackface to antagonize participants at a protest against anti-Black racism at Nathan Phillips Square in Toronto, where he was arrested for breach of the peace. Since then, his likeness has been featured in numerous hateful memes, particularly in the context of anti-Black hate.

A modified Pepe who's head is that of the Nathan Phillips Square Blackface man.

Nazi Swastika

Variations of what is now known as the Swastika were used in ancient Eurasian civilizations, and it is a spiritual symbol in several religions like Hinduism and Buddhism. It had several meanings in European and North American societies in the 19th and 20th century, and often appeared as a good luck symbol. It was adopted as the symbol of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) in 1920, and has since become widely seen as a symbol of hate and of a genocidal regime that killed six million Jews, between 200,000 and 500,000 Romani, and persecuted a number of minorities and political enemies. Today the Swastika is still used as a symbol to intimidate against members of a number of demographic groups. It also finds use in accusatory contexts, such as at political protests, but its rhetorical use remains controversial.

Redesign of a Nazi German Imperial flag. It features a large Swastika on a red circle banded over a white background. A red maple leaf sits in the top-left corner.

No More Brother Wars/No More Brothers Wars

No More Brother(s) Wars is a white supremacist slogans that argues for peace between Western nations perceived as white, and invokes conspiracies about Jews orchestrating historical conflicts. No More Brother Wars ties into White Genocide conspiracies, as it discourages actions and policies believed to lower caucasian populations across the world. Instead it promotes violence towards non-white populations and nations. The idea of "Brother Wars" is regularly invoked by white power musicians and bands, and appears regularly in extreme online spaces. Though the slogan was prevalent prior to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, the ensuing war has popularized it.

A picture showing soldiers with their heads replaced by Dead's heads. They are standing in front of a large white swastika stained in blood. Above, text reads 'No More Brother Wars'.

Not Stolen, Conquered

Also appears as: Conquered, Not Stolen

“Conquered, Not Stolen” is an anti-Indigenous meme that celebrate the colonial system implemented and genocide perpetrated by European settlers. The phrase proposes land should belong to the race or culture that last fought to conquer it. “Conquered, Not Stolen” is a chauvinistic statement intended to push back upon attempts by settler societies to confront and reconcile with their colonial histories by promoting genocide celebration and white nationalist interpretations of history. The meme is also used to articulate support for maintaining the privileged societal position of white European colonizers. It is used by the American white supremacist group Patriot Front in their propaganda.

Design of a Patriot Front sticker that shows a map of the United States with years that regions were "conquered". Text on it reads "NOT STOLEN CONQUERED".

Oswald Mosley

Oswald Mosley was the founder and leader of the British Union of Fascists (1932-1940) and the Union Movement (1948-1973). Mosley’s likeness and speeches are used in pro-fascist memes and videos. Mosley’s speeches are especially popular among English-speaking Canadian white nationalists and neo-Nazis because more prominent fascist politicians spoke primarily in languages other than English and because social media algorithms more often sensor Adolf Hitler’s speeches than Mosley’s.

Stylized propaganda art of Oswald Mosley in his British Union of Fascists uniform. A Flash and Circle is in the top-left corner. Below his face is the text "No more Brothers Wars".

Remove Kebab

‘Remove Kebab’ is an Islamophobic and anti-Turkish meme that originated in a propaganda music video produced by Bosnian Serbian soldiers. Kebab is a hateful term for Turkish and Muslim immigrants that references stereotypical associations with kebab shops. The white supremacist who committed the Christchurch attack wrote “Remove Kebab” on one of his weapons, and referred to himself as a “part-time kebab removalist” in his manifesto.

"REMOVE KEBAB" below a flattened image of the accordian player from "Serbia Strong". A Serbian flag is behind him.

Revolt Against The Modern World

Revolt Against The Modern World is a slogan taken from the title of traditionalist and fascist author Julius Evola’s influential book. The phrase is used to signify support for anti-modern traditionalism or esoteric fascism. It often appears alongside imagery that modern fascist movements consider to be a negative symptom of modernity, such as examples of popular media promoting cultural diversity or feminism. Conversely, it also appears alongside romanticized imagery of societies and time periods that incorporated strict gender roles, family structures, and racial hierarchies promoted as an alternative to modern society. It is a common slogan used in fashwave memes.

A picture of Jesus overlayed with fashwave aesthetics, with text that reads 'Revolt Against the Modern World. Not because it is modern but because it is evil.'

Sheeeit Guy

Also appears as: Tyrone

The Sheeeit (or Sheeeeit) Guy is racist caricature of Black men commonly found in hateful contexts and comics online. The Sheeeit Guy is typically depicted committing violent acts, including sexual violence, and as having low intelligence. The character relies on existing racist stereotypes to portray Black men as animalisitic and sexually aggressive in order to shape or enforce racist structures and beliefs. The term “Sheeeit'' is drawn from a character’s catchphrase in the television show The Wire.

A racist caricature of a black man in an orange jumpsuit posing for a mugshot. He says "SHHHHHEEEEEEEEIIIITT"

SS Bolts

Schutzstaffel (SS) head Heinrich Himmler was obsessed with the occult and pseudoarcheological interpretations of Germanic history, and sought to use symbols and rituals to root the organization in his views. Some runes had already been used by members of the SS and its predecessor organizations prior to Himmler’s adoption, but he systematised it. The SS used several runes drawn from the mystic Guido von List’s Armanen Runes as organizational symbols. The symbols in List’s work, which he claimed came to him in a vision during a period of temporary blindness, were inspired by the historic Norse Younger Futhark runes. In addition to runes from List’s work, the SS also appropriated other esoteric symbols like the Wolfsangel.

The SS bolts were adapted from the Sowilo rune that the Nazis coopted. SS Runes, including the SS bolts, continue to be used today by neo-Nazis and white supremacists. However, not all uses of real or pseudohistorical runes is hateful, and context has to be carefully taken into account.

See also: Death Rune, Life Rune, Odal Rune

A black flag with two white Sowilo runes in the centre, resembling "SS".

SS Totenkopf

Also appears as: Death’s Head

Used in the insignia of multiple organizations under the SS (Schutzstaffel) in Nazi Germany, and which was as a pin by some guards overseeing extermination camps.

The SS Totenkopf is a popular symbol in modern Neo-Nazi propaganda. It is used to invoke Nazi Germany, the SS, and the Holocaust specifically. Although the Nazi Totenkopf was influenced by Prussian designs, it is visually distinct from its Prussian predecessors.

A still image from The Office, with Michael Scott's head replaced by a totenkopf. Below, text reads 'You know what? I'm gonna start extremisming even harder.'

Super Straight

A mostly online transphobic movement presented as a sexuality. Individuals who refer to themselves as “super straight” allege that it is a sexuality in which an individual is not just heterosexual, but only attracted to cisgender, heterosexual people of the opposite sex. The term is used by anti-trans activists across a variety of ideologies.

An Instagram profile. The profile picture is the Super Straight logo. Bio reads "Super Straight" followed by a black square and an orange square.

The Flash and Circle/British Union of Fascists Logo

The logo used by the antisemitic British Union of Fascists is often used in hate memes to represent fascist beliefs and British nationalism. In Canada, the symbol often signifies an affection for Canada’s history in the British Empire. The BUF logo is less likely to be censored than more widely recognized Nazi iconography and is sometimes used in place of the Swastika. Outside of educational contexts the logo is seldom used for non-political reasons. It is not to be confused with the logo of superhero The Flash, which it bears similarity to.

The British Union of Fascists logo, a white lightning bold on a blue circle.

Waffen Shield

The Waffen-SS were the combat branch of the SS (Schutzstaffel). The various divisions used shields with Nazi symbols as insignias. Today, these shields are used to denote Neo-Nazi groups and are particularly popular among Nazi accelerationist organizations. Shields with an indent in the top-right corner are especially popular in part due to their use by Iron March network groups like Atomwaffen Division. The appearance of such shields may indicate an informed interest in neo-Nazism.

Nazi Totenkopf with sunglasses on. Above and below text reads "keep On [sic] Smiling". The S in "Smiling" is a Sowilo rune. Surrounding it all is a Waffen shield with a dent in its top-right corner. Text and design are white on a black background.


ZOG is an acronym for Zionist Occupation Government which is related to conspiracy theories about Israeli, Zionist, or Jewish control of Western governments, along with the United Nations and other prominent intergovernmental and international organizations. ZOG conspiracy theories build on existing antisemitic beliefs about international networks and cabals of powerful Jews influencing world affairs that can be traced back to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Some extremists use ZOG in the place of more explicit slurs online to skirt hate speech detection.

On a wooden floor are white cutouts to the letters "END ZOG". The "O" in ZOG is replaced with a Star of David. A Nazi-styled Celtic Cross is drawn on it. Many words are writte non the letters.

These lists are continually updated, and should not be considered comprehensive. Suggestions for future inclusions can be sent to neuberger [at] ujafed.org.

French translations of each symbol will be available in November 2022.

Hatepedia was produced by the Online Hate Research and Education Project, which is an initiative of the Holocaust Education Centre. For more information, please visit our website or contact us at neubeger [at] ujafed.org.

Hatepedia and OHREP have been made possible in part by the Government of Canada.

Hatepedia et OHREP a été rendu possible en partie grâce au gouvernement du Canada.