Explicit Hate Symbols

Any symbol whose appearance is unambiguously linked to the promotion of hateful views. Outside of education and commemoration, their use is almost exclusively limited to the promotion of hate. We define each symbol as a meme, a coopted symbol, or a conspiracy theory. We use a broad definition of meme, which includes slogans and codes, in addition to image macros found online.

13/50 and variations (Numeric Symbol)

Number codes like 13/50 are used by white supremacists to perpetuate a racist myth that black people are inherently prone to crime or violence. 13/50 is a code for the false claim that Black Americans commit 50% of violence crime despite making up 13% of the population. The percentages and the slogan often appear in similar numbers like 14% and 51%, respectively. Because they are coded, they can appear in memes that do not immediately appear to be hateful to those unfamiliar with them.

Example of a 13/50 Meme
Example of a 13/50 Meme

109 Countries - (Meme)

Also appears as: 110 Countries

“109 countries” is reference to an antisemitic myth that Jews have historically been expelled from 109 countries. The myth is persistent in conspiratorial antisemitic movements, and the idea that malicious Jewish conduct has led to widespread rejection is used to promote a white nationalist narrative that Jewish exile or genocide are necessary.

“109 countries” is sometimes censored on social media for hate speech and disinformation, however, references to the concept that use coded language, such as referencing “the 110th country” in future-tense can be more difficult to moderate.

Reddit post referencing 109 countries meme
Example of a 109 countries meme

6 Gorillion - (Meme)

‘Six Gorillion’ is mocking reference to the six million Jews killed by Nazi Germany in the Holocaust. The term exists to emphasize an antisemitic narrative that the number six million was fabricated, and that Jews use that figure as a rhetorical shield and justification for alleged machinations. It is used in antisemitic memes to deny, distort, or mock the Holocaust and the memorial culture that surrounds it.

Six Gorillion Meme
Example of a Six Gorillion meme

6 Million? - (Meme)

6 Million? is a meme that calls into question the number of Jews killed during the Holocaust. Some Holocaust deniers and distorters will concede that Jews were killed by the Nazi regime and their collaborators, but will attempt to use sophistry and disinformation to undermine widely documented and accepted historical facts.

Example of a 6 Million? meme
Example of a 6 Million? meme

Battle Standard of the Army of Northern Virginia/Confederate Flag - (Symbol)

The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War’s battle flag became a widely-used symbol of the slaveholding South after their defeat, and the pseudohistorical "Lost Cause" mythos that followed. The flag was often used to express racial animus during moments of widespread civil rights and labour activism, and is often associated with a variety of racist and far-right views. The flag, which is sometimes used as a symbol of rural identity, has a history of being flown in Canada, and appeared alongside other extreme symbols at the 2022 Convoy in Ottawa.

Confederate Flag
Confederate Flag

Black Sun - (Symbol)

Also appears as: Sonnenrad, Sun Wheel

The Black Sun is an original symbol based on ancient European sunwheel symbols as a pseudohistorical symbol of Aryan or Norse heritage. SS (Schutzstaffel) head Heinrich Himmler had the symbol installed as a floor mosaic in Wewelsburg Castle which was envisioned as a main centre for the SS. Today the Black Sun is often used in place of the Swastika as a symbol of national socialism. It also represents the elements of mysticism, occultism, and Satanism that can be found within some neo-Nazi movements. Because the Black Sun is not as well known as the Swastika, it is occasionally missed and broadcast by journalists and organizations.

Black Sun, Sonnenrad
The Black Sun

Brenton Tarrant - (Symbol)

On 15 March 2019 white supremacist Brenton Harrison Tarrant killed 51 Muslim people in a shooting spree in Christchurch, New Zealand. Tarrant, who was heavily influenced by online far-right media, covered his equipment in references to internet memes and neo-Nazi symbols and videotaped his killing spree on a mounted camera for online distribution. Though mainstream social media platforms heavily moderated the video's spread, it was seen widely in extreme spaces.

Tarrant is idolized and deified in white supremacist accelerationist spaces, where adherents look to his actions for inspiration. His likeness, his manifesto, and memes incorporating footage from his video are used to incite hate-based violence, especially violence towards Muslims.

Example of a Brenton Tarrant Meme
Example of a Brenton Tarrant meme

British Union of Fascists Logo - (Symbol)

Also appears as: The Flash and Circle

The logo used by the antisemitic British Union of Fascists is often used in hate memes to represent fascist beliefs and British nationalism. In Canada, the symbol often signifies an affection for Canada’s history in the British Empire. The BUF logo is less likely to be censored than more widely recognized Nazi iconography and is sometimes used in place of the Swastika. Outside of educational contexts the logo is seldom used for non-political reasons. It is not to be confused with the logo of superhero The Flash, which it bears similarity to.

British Union of Fascists Logo
British Union of Fascists Logo

Clasped Hands - (Symbol)

Clasped Hands is a visual shorthand for the antisemitic Happy Merchant meme. The gesture is meant to represent conspiratorial stereotypes about Jewish plots and greed.

Clasped Hands
Clasped Hands

Conquered, Not Stolen - (Meme)

Also appears as: Not Stolen, Conquered

“Conquered, Not Stolen” is an anti-Indigenous meme that celebrate the colonial system implemented and genocide perpetrated by European settlers. The phrase proposes land should belong to the race or culture that last fought to conquer it. “Conquered, Not Stolen” is a chauvinistic statement intended to push back upon attempts by settler societies to confront and reconcile with their colonial histories by promoting genocide celebration and white nationalist interpretations of history. The meme is also used to articulate support for maintaining the privileged societal position of white European colonizers. It is used by the American white supremacist group Patriot Front in their propaganda.

Example of a Conquered, Not Stolen meme
Example of a Conquered, Not Stolen meme

Dancing Israelis - (Meme)

An antisemitic term used by white nationalists in reference to conspiracy theories involving 5 Israeli men who were detained for displaying ‘puzzling behaviour’ during the 9/11 terror attacks. The term implies that Israelis were involved in, or perhaps masterminded the attack. Its use in hateful online circles gained prominence after American white nationalist Nicholas J. Fuentes directed his followers to reference it in public stunts.

Example of Dancing Israelis Meme
Example of a Dancing Israelis meme

Day of the Rake - (Meme)

A meme referencing the Day of the Rope that originated on 4chan, where “leaf” is slang for a Canadian user. Day of the Rake memes are an ironic call for violence against Canadians, often invoking imagery of leaves being burned or scattered.

Day of the Rake Meme
Example of a Day of the Rake meme

Day of the Rope - (Meme)

Day of the Rope is a call for violence taken from the 1978 white supremacist novel The Turner Diaries written by American Neo-Nazi William Luther Pierce, which depicts a fictional overthrow of the United States government and ensuing race war. Pierce’s book is influential among white supremacists including Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh, who was found with pages from the novel after his attack. In the book the Day of The Rope refers to a scene in the book where “race traitors” and enemies are executed en masse. Subsequent works by white supremacists have referenced Day of the Rope. There are numerous explicit and implicit Day of the Rope memes, which is sometimes referenced through noose-related imagery.

Day of the Rope Meme
Example of a Day of the Rope meme

Fourteen Words - (Meme)

“We must secure the existence of our people and a future for White children.”

The slogan commonly known as the “Fourteen Words” was penned by ex-Klansman, The Order member, and neo-Nazi David Lane during his time in prison. At the time, Lane was serving a 190 year prison sentence that included 150 years for his role in ther murder of Jewish anti-Nazi radio host Alan Berg.

The Fourteen Words is recited as a call for white nationalists to become more involved in attempts to create or maintain a white ethnostate, including through violent actions. It is recited in memes and in online forums to signal loyalty to white supremacist ideologies and to incite direct action in the name of white nationalism.

Example of Fourteen Words Meme
Example of a Fourteen Words meme

The Great Replacement/White Genocide - (Conspiracy Theory)

The Great Replacement is version of the White Genocide conspiracy theory, which asserts that white or “Aryan” people are being eliminated through a variety of mechanisms, including non-white immigration and feminism. White genocide conspiracy theories have a long history in far-right circles and remains prominent today in white nationalist, white supremacist, and conspiracy theory movements. The Anti-Defamation League has accused several high-profile politicians and media personalities of invoking the Great Replacement, including Tucker Carlson, who they relayed “explicitly promoted the ‘great replacement’ theory”.

Coined in 2011 by French white nationalist and conspiracy theorist Renaud Camus, the Great Replacement was based on a variety of pre-existing racist theories and ideas. Proponents allege that the end goal of the Great Replacement is to “weaken” or ultimately destroy white families over several generations as they increasingly start interracial families. The premise of the Great Replacement relies on the concept of white people being of a single race and that ancestry from non-white ethnicities can exclude an individual from being white. Jews are often considered to be the perpetrators of the Great Replacement, but conspiracy theories adjacent to the Great Replacement sometimes blame other groups, including secretive world governments.

Example of a Great Replacement Meme
Example of a Great Replacement meme

Happy Merchant - (Meme)

Also appears as: Le Happy Merchant, Jew Face

Happy Merchant is an antisemitic meme depicting a stereotypical representation of a Jewish character with a large hooked nose, kippah, beard, and clasped hands. Happy Merchant is one of the most popular antisemitic symbols found online, and is often used to invoke antisemitic conspiracy theories. It’s appearance is heavily inspired by historical antisemitic caricatures, notably those produced within Nazi Germany, and was pulled from a comic produced by an infamous white supremacist cartoonist who worked under the pseudonym “A. Wyatt Mann.”

Happy Merchant
Happy Merchant

Jogger - (Meme)

Reference to Ahmaud Arbery, a Black man who was murdered in a racially-motivated attack while jogging in 2020. Numerous memes were made spreading disinformation about Arbery in the aftermath of his murder and during the ensuing trial.

Jogger is sometimes used as a coded anti-Black slur to describe Black people and to invoke the murder of Ahmaud Arbery, and is used to evade censors made for hate speech.

Example of a Jogger meme
Example of a Jogger meme

Naming Them - (Meme)

“Naming them”, or “naming the Jews” is an antisemitic concept promoted by white supremacists. When a problem that can be blamed on the Jewish people is brought up without specific names, proponents of “naming the Jew” will advocate for a specific person, practice, or country to be blamed. This can mean naming an individual with a recognizable Jewish name, naming the practice of Judaism, or naming Israel as an alleged cause of whatever is being discussed. Though most often used in response to political discourse, the concept is also invoked in antisemitic memes as a way of espousing conspiratorial antisemitism in a way that might not be immediately recognized by people unfamiliar with the concept.

Example of a Naming Them meme
Example of a Naming Them meme

Nathan Phillips Square Blackface Guy - (Meme)

On 6 June 2020 an individual wore blackface to antagonize participants at a protest against anti-Black racism at Nathan Phillips Square in Toronto, where he was arrested for breach of the peace. Since then, his likeness has been featured in numerous hateful memes, particularly in the context of anti-Black hate.

Nathan Phillips Square, Black Lives Matter
Nathan Philips Square Blackface Guy

Nazi Swastika - (Symbol)

Variations of what is now known as the Swastika were used in ancient Eurasian civilizations, and it is a spiritual symbol in several religions like Hinduism and Buddhism. It had several meanings in European and North American societies in the 19th and 20th century, and often appeared as a good luck symbol. It was adopted as the symbol of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) in 1920, and has since become widely seen as a symbol of hate and of a genocidal regime that killed six million Jews, between 200,000 and 500,000 Romani, and persecuted a number of minorities and political enemies. Today the Swastika is still used as a symbol to intimidate against members of a number of demographic groups. It also finds use in accusatory contexts, such as at political protests, but its rhetorical use remains controversial.

Swastika, Hooked Cross
Swastika

No More Brother Wars - (Meme)

Also appears as: No More Brothers Wars

No More Brother Wars is a white supremacist slogans that argues for peace between Western nations perceived as white, and invokes conspiracies about Jews orchestrating historical conflicts. No More Brother Wars ties into White Genocide conspiracies as it discourages actions and policies that could lower caucasian populations across the world. Instead it promotes violence towards non-white populations and nations.

The idea of Brother Wars is regularly invoked by white power musicians and bands, and appears regularly in extreme online spaces. Though the slogan was prevalent prior to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, the ensuing war has popularized it.

Example of a No More Brother Wars meme
Example of a No More Brother Wars meme

Oswald Mosley - (Meme)

Oswald Mosley was the founder and leader of the British Union of Fascists (1932-1940) and the Union Movement (1948-1973). Mosley’s likeness and speeches are used in pro-fascist memes and videos. Mosley’s speeches are especially popular among English-speaking Canadian white nationalists and neo-Nazis because more prominent fascist politicians spoke primarily in languages other than English and because social media algorithms more often sensor Adolf Hitler’s speeches than Mosley’s.

Example of an Oswald Mosley meme
Example of an Oswald Mosley meme

Remove Kebab - (Meme)

‘Remove Kebab’ is an Islamophobic and anti-Turkish meme that originated in a propaganda music video produced by Bosnian Serbian soldiers. Kebab is a hateful term for Turkish and Muslim immigrants that references stereotypical associations with kebab shops. The white supremacist who committed the Christchurch attack wrote “Remove Kebab” on one of his weapons, and referred to himself as a “part-time kebab removalist” in his manifesto.

Remove Kebab meme
Example of a Remove Kebab meme

Revolt Against the Modern World - (Meme)

Revolt Against The Modern World is a slogan taken from the title of traditionalist and fascist author Julius Evola’s influential book. The phrase is used to signify support for anti-modern traditionalism or esoteric fascism. It often appears alongside imagery that modern fascist movements consider to be a negative symptom of modernity, such as examples of popular media promoting cultural diversity or feminism. Conversely, it also appears alongside romanticized imagery of societies and time periods that incorporated strict gender roles, family structures, and racial hierarchies promoted as an alternative to modern society. It is a common slogan used in fashwave memes.

Example of a Revolt Against the Modern World meme
Example of a Revolt Against the Modern World meme

Sheeeit Guy - (Meme)

Also appears as: Tyrone

The Sheeeit Guy is racist caricature of Black men commonly found in hateful contexts and comics online. The Sheeeit Guy is typically depicted committing violent acts, including sexual violence, and as having low intelligence. The character relies on existing racist stereotypes to portray Black men as animalisitic and sexually aggressive in order to shape or enforce racist structures and beliefs. The term “Sheeeit'' is drawn from a character’s catchphrase in the television show The Wire.

Sheeeit Guy
Sheeeit Guy

SS Totenkopf - (Symbol)

Also appears as: Death’s head

Used in the insignia of multiple organizations under the SS (Schutzstaffel) in Nazi Germany, and which was as a pin by some guards overseeing extermination camps.

The SS Totenkopf is a popular symbol in modern Neo-Nazi propaganda. It is used to invoke Nazi Germany, the SS, and the Holocaust specifically. Although the Nazi Totenkopf was influenced by Prussian designs, it is visually distinct from its Prussian predecessors.

Totenkopf
Totenkopf

Super Straight - (Meme)

A mostly online transphobic movement presented as a sexuality. Individuals who refer to themselves as “super straight” allege that it is a sexuality in which an individual is not just heterosexual, but only attracted to cisgender, heterosexual people of the opposite sex. The term is used by anti-trans activists across a variety of ideologies.

Super Straight Flag
Super Straight Flag

Triple Parentheses - (Meme)

Also appears as: Echoes, ((( ))), Triple Brackets

Three sets of parentheses, also known as “echoes”, are used on social media and online forums and applied to words describing a person or people to communicate in a derogatory manner that they are Jewish. They’re also sometimes used to imply that a non-Jewish target is secretly or unknowingly Jewish. The meme began as a verbal indication of a subject’s Jewish heritage on far right podcasts, and quickly became textual through parentheses.

Before widespread popularity, triple parentheses were an alternative to antisemitic slurs that avoided online hate speech sensors. Since becoming a well-known hate symbol, Jewish social media users have appropriated the triple parentheses as a positive symbol of Jewish pride.

Echo, antisemitism
Triple Parentheses

Waffen Shield - (Symbol)

The Waffen-SS were the combat branch of the SS (Schutzstaffel). The various divisions used shields with Nazi symbols as insignias. Today, these shields are used to denote Neo-Nazi groups and are particularly popular among Nazi accelerationist organizations. Shields with an indent in the top-right corner are especially popular in part due to their use by Iron March network groups like Atomwaffen Division. The appearance of such shields may indicate an informed interest in neo-Nazism.

Waffen SS Shield
Waffen SS Shield

ZOG - (Conspiracy Theory)

ZOG is an acronym for Zionist Occupation Government which is related to conspiracy theories about Israeli, Zionist, or Jewish control of Western governments, along with the United Nations and other prominent intergovernmental and international organizations. ZOG conspiracy theories build on existing antisemitic beliefs about international networks and cabals of powerful Jews influencing world affairs that can be traced back to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Some extremists use ZOG in the place of more explicit slurs online to skirt hate speech detection.

Example of a ZOG meme
Example of a ZOG meme

These lists are continually updated, and should not be considered comprehensive. Suggestions for future inclusions can be sent to neuberger [at] ujafed.org

French translations of each symbol will be available in November 2022.

Hatepedia was produced by the Online Hate Research and Education Project, which is an initiative of the Holocaust Education Centre. For more information, please visit our website or contact us at neubeger [at] ujafed.org.

Hatepedia and OHREP have been made possible in part by the Government of Canada.

Hatepedia et OHREP a été rendu possible en partie grâce au gouvernement du Canada.